Electric generators are devices that convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. They are used in a variety of applications, from powering small devices to providing electricity for entire households. There are many different types of electric generators, each with its own advantages, disadvantages and optimal applications. The first generator was invented in 1831 by Michael Faraday.
He built the first electromagnetic generator, called a Faraday disc, which was a type of homopolar generator. This design was inefficient due to the counterflow of current with automatic cancellation in regions of the disc that were not under the influence of the magnetic field. Later homopolar generators solved this problem by using a series of magnets arranged around the perimeter of the disc to maintain a constant field effect in one direction of current flow. A homopolar generator is a direct current electrical generator comprising an electrically conductive disc or cylinder that rotates in a plane perpendicular to a uniform static magnetic field.
A potential difference is created between the center of the disc and the rim (or the ends of the cylinder), and the electrical polarity depends on the direction of rotation and the orientation of the field. It is also known as a unipolar generator, acyclic generator, disc dynamo or Faraday disc. The voltage is usually low, but large research generators can produce hundreds of volts, and some systems have several generators in series to produce an even higher voltage. AC induction motors can also be used as generators, converting mechanical energy into electrical current.
Induction generators work by mechanically rotating their rotor faster than synchronous speed, resulting in negative slippage. A normal asynchronous alternating current motor can generally be used as a generator, without internal modifications. Induction generators are useful in applications such as mini-hydroelectric power plants, wind turbines, or for reducing high-pressure gas flows to a lower pressure. In the simplest form of linear electrical generator, a sliding magnet moves back and forth through a solenoid, a coil of copper wire.
Faraday's law of induction induces an alternating current in the cable's loops each time the magnet slides through them. This type of generator is used in the Faraday flashlight. Larger linear electricity generators are used in power schemes. Generators provide electrical energy by converting mechanical energy and are used in an external circuit.
Different mechanical energy sources, such as wind turbines, steam turbines, water turbines, gas turbines and internal combustion engines, are used to provide the source of this conversion. There are different types of generators, each adapted to specific needs. In addition, there are two fundamental types of generators known as AC (alternating current) and DC (direct current) generators. While the electricity production technique is the same in both types, AC and DC power differ in terms of their applications: the way the loads receive electrical energy.For example, generators for domestic use supply AC power, while cars use generators that produce direct current power.
Hydrogen is tremendously abundant, non-toxic, clean, cheap and produces more energy per pound than any other fuel source. Although not as readily available as other types of generators, hydrogen generators are portable and useful for many environments, including laboratories.Generators use fuel sources such as gasoline, natural gas or solar energy to produce electricity so you can power a campsite, recharge mobile devices or operate essential household appliances in the event of an emergency. They range from small portable generators that are ideal for camping to large backup generators that are essentially permanent accessories outside the home.Inverter generators can be either whole house or portable generators but they differ in how they produce electricity. A standard generator produces electricity in a single phase and cannot maintain a constant flow of electricity.
Inverter generators produce electricity in three phases creating a high-frequency alternating current (AC) which is then reversed into direct current (DC) and finally reversed once again into a stable AC output.This process seems complex but it actually helps to create what is known as “clean” power which is ideal for powering sensitive electronics like computers and cell phones without damaging them.Small compact and easy to transport or store portable generators usually run on gasoline propane or solar energy because these fuel sources are readily available from gas stations or directly from the sun respectively. Their small size makes it easy to store these generators in a vehicle or store them in a shed or garage until needed.On camping trips a portable generator can recharge mobile devices run the camp stove or keep the lights on after sunset however these generators sacrifice energy production for mobility so they cannot produce the same amount of energy as larger backup generators.Their small size and capacity make portable generators more affordable.Technology has certainly evolved since Faraday joined together a magnet cotton and some wire; there are now many different types of electric generators each with its own advantages disadvantages and optimal applications.